Wednesday, October 31, 2012

Data Warehouse: Data Normalization

Data Normalization splits up data to avoid redundancy (duplication) by moving commonly repeating groups of data into new tables. 

Database Normalization Example

The following graphic gives an example of a typical conversion of an un-normalized table to multiple normalized tables.
Advantages of Database Normalization:
  • Data integrity is maintained.
  • Results of queries are predictable.
  • Changes to data have to be made only once.

  • Amount of storage required by the database is optimal.

Read more reference:

Data Warehouse: Snowflake Schema

Snowflake Schema

In data warehouse, a snowflake schema is a logical arrangement of tables in a multidimensional database such that the entity relationship diagram resembles a snowflake in shape. The snowflake schema is represented by centralized fact tables which are connected to multiple dimensions.

It is similar to the star schema. However, in the snowflake schema, dimensions are normalized into multiple related tables, whereas the star schema's dimensions are normalized with each dimension represented by a single table.

Example:Snowflake schema used by example query.

FROM Fact_Sales F
INNER JOIN Dim_Date D             ON F.Date_Id = D.Id
INNER JOIN Dim_Store S            ON F.Store_Id = S.Id
INNER JOIN Dim_Geography G        ON S.Geography_Id = G.Id
INNER JOIN Dim_Product P          ON F.Product_Id = P.Id
INNER JOIN Dim_Brand B            ON P.Brand_Id = B.Id
INNER JOIN Dim_Product_Category C ON P.Product_Category_Id = C.Id
        D.YEAR = 1997 AND
        C.Product_Category = 'tv'

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Data Warehouse: Star Schema

Star Schema
In Data Warehouse, the combination of facts and dimensions is sometimes called a star schema.

The star schema (also called star-join schemadata cube, or multi-dimensional schema) is the simplest style of data warehouse schema. The star schema consists of one or more fact tables referencing any number of dimension tables.

Model (refer the graphic above)

  • The fact table holds the metric values recorded for a specific event. Because of the desire to hold atomic level data, there generally are a very large number of records (billions). Special care is taken to minimize the number and size of attributes in order to constrain the overall table size and maintain performance. Fact tables generally come in 3 flavors - transaction (facts about a specific event e.g. Sale), snapshot (facts recorded at a point in time e.g. Account details at month end), and accumulating snapshot tables (e.g. month-to-date sales for a product).
  • Dimension tables usually have few records compared to fact tables, but may have a very large number of attributes that describe the fact data.

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Data: Data Marts

Data warehouses can be subdivided into data marts. Data marts store subsets of data from a warehouse.

Data Mart is the access layer of the data warehouse environment that is used to get data out to the users. The data mart is a subset of the data warehouse that is usually oriented to a specific business line or team.

In deployments, each department/business unit is considered the owner of its data mart including all the hardwaresoftware and data.

Each department able to manipulate and develop their data any way they see fit; without altering information inside other data marts or the data warehouse. 

Read more:

Data: Data Warehouse

I've been employed by new sub-govern company since last 2 weeks.
And till now I've been assigning different task from the first week to another weeks...
First, I was asked to backup finance system, then last week I was asked to help collection module for new system .. and today I just knowing will be assigned new task.. to handle data warehouse.
What is data warehouse?

Data Warehouse (DW or DWH) is a database used for reporting and data analysis. It is a central repository of data which is created by integrating data from multiple disparate sources. Data warehouses store current as well as historical data and are commonly used for creating trending reports for senior management reporting such as annual and quarterly comparisons.

The data may pass through an operational data store for additional operations before they are used in the DW for reporting.

ETL(extract, transform and load ) refers to a process in database usage and especially in data warehousing that involves:

The staging layer or staging database stores raw data extracted from each of the disparate source data systems. The integration layer integrates the disparate data sets by transforming the data from the staging layer often storing this transformed data in an operational data store (ODS) database.

The integrated data are then moved to another database, often called the data warehouse database. 

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Wednesday, October 24, 2012

Java: JDK Installation for Microsoft Windows

Download Installer

The file jdk-7-windows-i586-i.exe is the JDK installer for 32-bit systems. The file jdk-7-windows-x64.exe is the JDK installer for 64-bit systems. If you downloaded either file instead of running it directly from the web site, double-click the installer's icon.

Follow the instructions the installer provides. The installer may ask you to reboot your computer.
**When finished with the installation, you can delete the downloaded file to recover disk space.

Read more; 

Tuesday, October 23, 2012

Oracle: Java SE Development Kit 7u6

I'm planning to study Java programming from online tutorial. The first thing I have to do is download the package first from Oracle official site..

JDK 7 and JRE 7 Installation Guide
Do you want to run Java programs, or do you want to develop Java programs? If you want to run Java programs, but not develop them, download the Java Runtime Environment, or JRE. If you want to develop Java applications, download the Java Development Kit, or JDK. The JDK includes the JRE, so you do not have to download both separately.

Windows System Requirements for JDK and JRE

Processor Requirements

Both the Java SE Development Kit (JDK) and Java SE Runtime Environment (JRE) require at minimum a Pentium 2 266 MHz processor.

Disk Space Requirements

For the JDK, you are given the option of installing the following features:
  • Development Tools
  • Source Code
  • Public Java Runtime Environment
  • For the JDK, the installed image consists of all the files installed under the directory jdk1.7.0; for the JRE, it consists of all files installed under the directory jre1.7.0.
  • The directory Program Files\Common Files\Java\Java Update, or Program Files (x86)\Common Files\Java\Java Update on 64-bit operating systems, contains Java Update, which enables you to keep your computer up-to-date automatically with the latest JRE releases.
  • The installed image will, by default, be installed on the Windows drive — the drive where the Windows operating system is installed (sometimes called the system drive). Most often this will be the C drive. However, it is possible to install the installed image on any drive. For instance, the installed image for the JDK could be installed to a non-Windows drive with a custom installation.
  • Java SE uses the directory %APPDATA% to store temporary files. To determine the location of this directory, go to the Java Control Panel (from the Windows Control Panel). Select the General tab. In the Temporary Internet Files panel, click Settings.... Note that only advanced users should modify the settings for temporary files.
In addition to the disk space required for the installed images, there must be sufficient disk space for Java Update. The table that follow show the various disk space requirements for the JRE and JDK:
Disk Space Requirements for JRE
JREInstalled Image
Java Runtime Environment, including JavaFX Runtime124 MB
Java Update2 MB
Disk Space Requirements for JDK
JDKInstalled Image
Development Tools, including JavaFX SDK245 MB
Source Code27 MB
Public Java Runtime EnvironmentSee the table, "Disk Space Requirements for JRE"

Memory Requirements

The following table lists the minimum memory requirements for Windows 32-bit operating systems.
Microsoft Windows 32-Bit
Windows 7128 MB
Windows Vista128 MB
Windows Server 2008128 MB
Windows XP64 MB

64-bit Platforms

Processor Requirements

Both the JDK and JRE require at minimum a Pentium 2 266 MHz processor.

Disk Space Requirements

  • The JDK features available for 64-bit platforms are the same as those for Windows 32-bit operating systems.
  • The disk requirement for development tools for 64-bit platforms is 181 MB. The disk space requirements for source code and the public JRE are the same as those for Windows 32-bit operating systems, except for the JavaFX SDK (68 MB) and the JavaFX runtime (32 MB).

Memory Requirements

The following tables list the minimum memory requirements for Windows 64-bit operating systems:
Note: The minimum physical RAM is required to run graphically based applications. More RAM is recommended for applets running within a browser using the Java Plug-in. Running with less memory may cause disk swapping, which has a severe effect on performance. Very large programs may require more RAM for adequate performance.
Microsoft Windows x64, 32-Bit Mode
Windows 7128 MB
Windows Server 2008128 MB
Windows Vista128 MB
Windows XP128 MB
Microsoft Windows x64, 64-Bit Mode
Windows 7128 MB
Windows Server 2008128 MB
Windows Server 2008 R2128 MB
Windows Vista128 MB
Windows XP128 MB

Monday, October 22, 2012

FreeBSD: How to Jails on FreeBsd(Filter access)

Thanks Kokteels, the guide refered from you:

1. Need to csup for port & stable supfile. Skip this step if you already compile before. 

2. Next step 

# setenv D /jail/www
# mkdir -p $D 
# cd /usr/src
# make buildworld
# make installworld DESTDIR=$D
# cd etc/
# make distribution DESTDIR=$D 
# mount -t devfs devfs $D/dev 

3. Edit following patch  #ee /etc/rc.conf
ifconfig_bge0_alias1="inet netmask"
*can be any available IP at you LAN.

4. Start Jail
#/etc/rc.d/jail start

5. Testing Jail.
#jls -v
# jls

***Minimum 6Gb need to deploy jails. Csup will take lot of file.

Sunday, October 21, 2012

Finance: Functional & Terms

Source Reference:


The ledger is a permanent summary of all amounts entered in supporting journals which list individual transactions by date.

General Ledger(GL)
General Ledger is the final repository of the accounting records and data. In modern accounting softwares or ERP, the general ledger works as a central repository for accounting data transferred from all sub-ledgers or modules like accounts payable, accounts recievable, cash management, fixed assets, purchasing and projects. General ledger is the backbone of any accounting system which holds financial and non-financial data for an oranization.

Is a double entry bookkeeping entries are recorded by debiting one or more accounts and crediting another one or more accounts with the same total amount. 

Multiple Journal (MJ)
Used to update the project ledger and simultaneously the affected module.
Also used to add expenses or to transfer expenses into Project Costing Ledger.

Multi Ledger Journal
Used to update Project Ledger by type of ledger e.g  Cash, Actual, Commitment.

Account Receivable (AR)
Payment received by company for debtor's invoice issued.

Account Payable (AP)
Also known as Creditors; is money owed by a business to its suppliers and shown on its Balance Sheet as a liability.

commercial document issued by a seller to the buyer, indicating the products, quantities, and agreed prices for products or services the seller has provided the buyer

A financial statement; a formal record of the financial activities of a business, person, or other entity.

A financial transaction in which one person withdraws funds from another person's bank account.

Its a fundamental aspects of every financial transaction in the double-entry bookkeeping systemEvery debit transaction must have a corresponding credit transaction(s)."Dr" (Debit) means left side of a ledger account.

A contractual agreement in which a borrower receives something of value now and agrees to repay the lender at some later date.
Its a fundamental aspects of every financial transaction in the double-entry bookkeeping systemEvery credit transaction must have a corresponding debit transaction(s)."Cr" (Debit) means right side of a ledger account.

Refers to money in the physical form of currency.

In bookkeeping and finance, cash refers to current assets comprising currency or currency equivalents that can be accessed immediately or near-immediately.

Cash Book
A financial journal that contains all cash receipts and payments, including bank deposits and withdrawals. Entries in the cash book are then posted into the general ledger. The cash book is periodically reconciled with the bank statements as an internal method of auditing. 

Budget is a financial plan and a list of all planned expenses and revenues. It is a plan for saving, borrowing and spending. 

Purchase Requisition (PR)
A purchase requisition is a request sent to the purchasing department to procure goods or services. It is originated and approved by the department requiring the goods or services.

Purchase Order (PO)
is a commercial document issued by a buyer to a seller, indicating types, quantities, and agreed prices for products or services the seller will provide to the buyer.

Procurement Process(Perolehan)
Procurement defines as the act of buying goods and services for the government.
Procurement may also involve a bidding process i.e.,Tendering. 

Chart Of Accounts(COA)
COA is a created list of the accounts used by a business entity to define each class of items for which money or the equivalent is spent or received. It is used to organize the finances of the entity and to segregate expenditures, revenue, assets and liabilities in order to give interested parties a better understanding of the financial health of the entity.

Standard Chart Of Accounts
In accounting, a standard chart of accounts is a numbered list of the accounts that comprise a company’s general ledger. The company chart of accounts is basically a filing system for categorizing all of a company’s accounts and classifying all transactions according to the accounts they affect. The chart of accounts list of categories may include assets, liabilities, owners' equity, revenues, cost of goods sold, operating expenses, and other relevant accounts. 

Assets are economic resources.

The accounting equation relates assets, liabilities, and owner's equity:
Assets = Liabilities + Stockholder's Equity (Owner's Equity)
Assets = liabilities + Capital
liabilities = Assets - Capital
Capital = Assets - liabilities

Current Assets
Current assets are cash and other assets expected to be converted to cash or consumed either in a year or in the operating cycle (whichever is longer), without disturbing the normal operations of a business. These assets are continually turned over in the course of a business during normal business activity. There are 5 major items included into current assets:

read more:

Fixed Assets

A fixed asset is a long-term tangible asset. Fixed assets are also called non-current assets, long-term assets, or property, plant and equipment (PP&E). Fixed assets are often large and illiquid physical assets that are important to a company’s core business operations. 

Trial Balance

trial balance is a list of all the General ledger accounts (both revenue and capital) contained in the ledger of a business. This list will contain the name of the nominal ledger account and the value of that nominal ledger account. The value of the nominal ledger will hold either a debit balance value or a credit balance value. The debit balance values will be listed in the debit column of the trial balance and the credit value balance will be listed in the credit column.

Balance Sheet
In financial accounting, a balance sheet or statement of financial position is a summary of the financial balances of a sole proprietorship, a business partnership, a corporation or other business organization, such as an LLC(Limited Liability Company) or an LLP(Limited Liability Partnership).

Bank Reconciliation
Bank reconciliation is a process that explains the difference between the bank balance shown in an organization'sbank statement, as supplied by the bank, and the corresponding amount shown in the organization's own accountingrecords at a particular point in time.

Financial Transaction
financial transaction is an agreementcommunication, or movement carried out between a buyer and a seller to exchange an asset for payment.

Asset Disposal
Asset disposal is the act of selling an asset usually a long term asset that has been depreciated over its useful life like production equipment.

An asset or item that is purchased with the hope that it will generate income or appreciate in the future. In an economic sense, an investment is the purchase of goods that are not consumed today but are used in the future to create wealth.

The act of giving money, property or other material goods to a another party in exchange for future repayment of the principal amount along with interest or other finance charges. A loan may be for a specific, one-time amount or can be available as open-ended credit up to a specified ceiling amount.

An agreement in which one party gains a long-term rental agreement, and the other party receives a form of secured long-term debt.

Sales is the act of selling a product or service in return for money or other compensation.

Is an instruction from a customer to buy things.

Is also known as a clientbuyer, or purchaser) is the recipient of a goodserviceproduct, or idea, obtained from a sellervendor, or supplierfor a monetary or other valuable consideration.

shareholder or stockholder is an individual or institution (including a corporation) that legally owns a share of stock in a public or private corporation. Stockholders are granted special privileges depending on the class of stock. 

Audit Kewangan (Finance Audit)

Audit kewangan, atau lebih tepat dinamakan audit pada penyata kewangan, adalah pemeriksaan penyata kewangan sesebuah syarikat atau organisasi lain oleh parti ketiga yang berpendirian tidak berat sebelah, lalu menghasilkan pendapat bebas mengenai sama ada penyata kewangan adalah relevan, tepat dan lengkap.
Audit kewangan biasanya diamalkan oleh firma-firma akauntan, kerana pengetahuan laporan kewangan khusus yang diperlukannya. Audit kewangan merupakan salah satu daripada pelbagai fungsi jaminan atau perbahasan yang disumbangkan oleh firma perakaunan, yang mana firma tersebut menyumbangkan pendapat bebas mengenai maklumat yang diterbitkan kepada umum.